3.6: Leukocytes or Esterase in urine (2024)

  1. Last updated
  2. Save as PDF
  • Page ID
    38664
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}} % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}} % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{#1}}} \)

    \(\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}\) \(\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}\) \(\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}\) \(\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}\) \(\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}\) \(\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}\) \(\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}\) \(\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}\) \(\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}\) \(\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}\) \(\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}\) \(\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}\) \(\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}\) \(\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}\) \(\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}\) \(\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}\) \(\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}\) \(\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}\) \(\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}\) \(\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}\) \(\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}\) \(\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}\) \(\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}\) \(\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}\) \(\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}\) \(\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}\) \(\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}\) \(\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}\) \(\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}\) \(\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}\) \(\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}\) \(\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}\) \(\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}\) \(\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}\) \(\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}\) \(\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}\) \(\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}\) \(\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}\) \(\newcommand{\lt}{<}\) \(\newcommand{\gt}{>}\) \(\newcommand{\amp}{&}\) \(\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}\)

    RELATED READING: Chapter 26. SEE URINALYSIS INFOBASE.

    White cells are not found in the urine of healthy individuals. Individuals with some forms of kidney or bladder infection will pass white cells into final urine. The dipstick is a rapid method of determining the presence of certain types of white cells in urine, called granulocytes. If positive, microscopic evaluation of the urine sediment or a urine culture is usually performed.

    Principle of the Method

    The dipstick method detects the nonspecific esterases present in granulocytic leukocytes, which hydrolyzs an acid ester to release a alcohol. The alcohol reacts with a daizonium salt to form a purple product. The amount of color change in the dye is proportional to the number of white cells present on the dipstick pad.

    The reactions are as follows:

    \[\text{Esterase} + \text{acid ester} \rightarrow \text{acid} + \text{active alcohol}\]

    \[\text{Active alcohol} + \text{diazonium salt} \rightarrow \text{purple color}\]

    The dye reaction requires time to become visible. There is also a maximum color change that can be obtained with the strip reagent. This is commonly set at approximately 5-15 cells/hpf.

    Reagents

    All the reagents for the reaction are embedded in the pad of the dipstick. As with all reagents stored in a dried form, their stability is affected by moisture. Therefore the reagents must be protected from moisture. In addition, careful attention must be given to the manufacturer’s shelf life, which should appear on the label of every dipstick container.

    Specimen

    Freshly voided urine is the preferred specimen. The first urine specimen of the day is considered the most desirable, because it is the most concentrated. Urine specimens are acceptable up to four hours after voiding. Refrigerated specimens are acceptable up to 24 hours after excretion.

    Procedure

    Collect the urine in an appropriate specimen container. After verifying that the strips are working (see quality control) quickly dip the strip in the urine, removing excess liquid by moving the edge of the strip against the rim of the container as you remove the strip from the container. After this initial pass to remove excess liquid, remove any remaining liquid by touching the entire edge of the strip to a gauze pad or a paper towel. There should be no visible liquid on the strip except for that on the pad.

    Results

    Start timing the reaction as soon as the strip is placed in the urine. After 2 minutes read the strip visually. Match the observed color of the pad with the chart color on the bottle of strips or with a color chart, if that is available. Record your observation. If a Clinitek or other instrument is available, place the strip in the device as soon as you dip the strip and record the printed result. If reading visually, continue reading the results after 60 seconds, 120 seconds, and 300 seconds.

    Calculations

    No calculations are necessary for the visual readings. If instrument readings are made, the calibrated instrument calculates the esterase concentration. If an instrument is used, correlate the visual reading with that of the instrument.

    Quality Control

    When visual readings are taken, be certain that the reader is not color blind. Before testing a test sample, take two strips and test a positive and a negative control sample. These results should be within accepted values. Ideally, a positive and negative control should be tested along with each batch of patient specimens tested.

    Expected values

    Urine from healthy individuals should give negative results. Urine from known patients with kidney or bladder infections may give positive results depending upon the extent and type of infection present.

    STUDENT REPORT

    Solution Visual Color Score Instrument Value at Set Times
    Time 30 sec. 60 sec. 300 sec.
    QC negative
    QC positive
    4400 units/dL
    2200 units/dL
    1100 units/dL
    550 units/dL
    275 units/dL
    137 units/dL
    Test solution 1
    Test solution 2
    Test solution 3

    Discussion Questions

    1. What is the range of linearity of the visual method?
    2. What is the range of linearity of the instrument?
    3. Does the test result change with time?
    4. If the result does change with time, Why?
    5. Does the range of linearity include all healthy and disease conditions?
    3.6: Leukocytes or Esterase in urine (2024)
    Top Articles
    Latest Posts
    Article information

    Author: Kareem Mueller DO

    Last Updated:

    Views: 5557

    Rating: 4.6 / 5 (46 voted)

    Reviews: 85% of readers found this page helpful

    Author information

    Name: Kareem Mueller DO

    Birthday: 1997-01-04

    Address: Apt. 156 12935 Runolfsdottir Mission, Greenfort, MN 74384-6749

    Phone: +16704982844747

    Job: Corporate Administration Planner

    Hobby: Mountain biking, Jewelry making, Stone skipping, Lacemaking, Knife making, Scrapbooking, Letterboxing

    Introduction: My name is Kareem Mueller DO, I am a vivacious, super, thoughtful, excited, handsome, beautiful, combative person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.